帕特《文艺复兴》之三 / 张江南 翻译

by 张江南

帕特《文艺复兴》之三 (2013-03-15)

The various forms of intellectual activity which together make up the culture of an age, move for the most part from different starting-points, and by unconnected roads. As products of the same generation they partake indeed of a common character, and unconsciously illustrate each other; but of the producers themselves, each group is solitary, gaining what advantage or disadvantage there may be in intellectual isolation. Art and poetry, philosophy and the religious life, and that other life of refined pleasure and action in the open places of the world, are each of them confined to its own circle of ideas, and those who prosecute either of them are generally little curious of the thoughts of others. There come, however, from time to time, eras of more favourable conditions, in which the thoughts of men draw nearer together than is their wont, and the many interests of the intellectual world combine in one complete type of general culture. The fifteenth century in Italy is one of these happier eras; and what is sometimes said of the age of Pericles is true of that of Lorenzo:--it is an age productive in personalities, many-sided, centralised, complete. Here, artists and philosophers and those whom the action of the world has elevated and made keen, do not live in isolation, but breathe a common air, and catch light and heat from each other's thoughts. There is a spirit of general elevation and enlightenment in which all alike communicate. It is the unity of this spirit which gives unity to all the various products of the Renaissance; and it is to this intimate alliance with mind, this participation in the best thoughts which that age produced, that the art of Italy in the fifteenth century owes much of its grave dignity and influence.

一同构成一个时代文化的各种不同形式的智性活动,大多从不同的起点,沿着毫无关联的道路前行。作为同一代人的产物,它们确实有共同的特征,无意识地相互印证;但对于生产者来说,每一个组群都是孤独的,分担着从其智力上的孤独而来的利与弊。艺术与诗、哲学与宗教生活,以及那呈现纯粹愉悦的另一种生活和在世界各地大庭广众下举行的活动,每一种都限定在其自身的观念范围之内,那些对其提出指控的人,一般都对他人的思想不屑一顾。然而,在时间的长河中,一些条件更为适宜的时代不时出现,在这些时代中,人们的思想比他们习惯的要更为相互接近,很多理智世界的兴趣在一个完整的普遍文化类型中结合了起来,意大利十五世纪就是这样一个幸福的时代;我们有时所说的伯里克利时代的一些东西在洛伦佐 时代真的又出现了:——这是一个产生巨人的时代,丰富、集中而且完全,在这里,艺术家、哲学家以及那些提升了这个世界并使之更加睿智的人没有相互隔绝,而是呼吸着共同的空气,从相互的思想中捕捉光与热,所有人在一种普遍提升与启蒙的精神中以相同的方式相互交流,正是这种精神上的统一给了文艺复兴所有不同作品一种统一性;也正是由于这种心灵上的亲密联盟,这一时代产生的最好思想的加入,十五世纪意大利的艺术才拥有了如此的伟大的尊严和影响。

I have added an essay on Winckelmann, as not incongruous with the studies which precede it, because Winckelmann, coming in the eighteenth century, really belongs in spirit to an earlier age. By his enthusiasm for the things of the intellect and the imagination for their own sake, by his Hellenism, his life-long struggle to attain to the Greek spirit, he is in sympathy with the humanists of an earlier century. He is the last fruit of the Renaissance, and explains in a striking way its motive and tendencies.

我添加了一篇关于温克尔曼的文章,与前面的文字多少有些不协调,因为出现在十八世纪的温克尔曼,在精神上真正属于一个更早的时代,凭借他对理智和想象力本身的热情,他的希腊主义,他持续一生对希腊精神的执着,他与更早世纪的人文主义者心意相通,他是文艺复兴晚熟的果实,用一种出类拔萃的方式将其动机与倾向展示出来。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_59404d5d0101cbk0.html
2013-04-10 09:44:44